§372 Tiberius Julius Alexander

Tiberius Julius Alexander

(0372) Text: Ἰούλιος Δημήτριος, στρατηγὸς Ὀάσεως Θ[ηβ̣αΐ]δος v τοῦ πεμφθέντος μοι διατάγματος ὑπὸ τοῦ κυρίου ἡγεμόνος | Τιβερίου Ἰουλίου Ἀλεξάνδρου τὸ ἀντίγραφον ὑμεῖν ὑπέταξα, ἵν’ εἰδότες ἀπολαύητε τῶν εὐεργε(σ)ιῶ(ν). (ἔτους) βʹ Λουκίου Λιβίου (Σ)εβαστοῦ (Σ)ουλπικίου | Γάλβα Αὐτοκράτορος Φαῶφι αʹ Ἰουλίᾳ Σεβαστῆι. Τιβέριος Ἰούλιος Ἀλέξανδρος λέγει πᾶσαν πρόνοιαν ποιούμενος τοῦ διαμένειν τῶι προσήκοντι κα- | ταστήματι τὴν πόλιν ἀπολαύουσαν τῶν εὐεργεσιῶν ἃς ἔχει παρὰ τῶν Σεβαστῶν καὶ τοῦ τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐν εὐσταθείᾳ διάγουσαν εὐθύμως ὑπηρετεῖν τῆι τε εὐθηνίᾳ καὶ τῆι μεγίσ- |τηι (τ)ῶ[ν] νῦν καιρῶν εὐδαιμονίᾳ, μὴι βαρυνομένην καιναῖς καὶ ἀδίκοις εἰσπράξεσι, σχεδὸν δὲ ἐξ οὗ τῆς πόλεως ἐπέβην καταβοώμενος ὑπὸ τῶν ἐντυγχανόντων καὶ κατ’ ὀλίγους καὶ κα- | τὰ πλήθηι τῶν τε ἐνθάδε εὐσχημονεστάτων καὶ τῶν γεωργούντων τὴν χώραν μεμφομένων τὰς ἔγγιστα γενομένας ἐπηρείας, οὐ διέλιπον μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ δύναμιν τὰ ἐπείγον- | τα ἐπανορθούμενος· ἵνα (δ)ὲ εὐθυμότεροι πάντα ἐλπίζητε παρὰ τοῦ ἐπιλάμψαντος ἡμεῖν ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ τοῦ παντὸς ἀνθρώπων γένους εὐεργέτου Σεβαστοῦ Αὐτοκράτορος Γάλβα τά τε πρὸ(ς) σωτηρίαν | [κ]αὶ τὰ πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν, καὶ γινώσκητε ὅτι ἐφρόντισα τῶν πρὸς τὴν ὑμετέραν βοήθειαν ἀνηκόντων, προέγραψα ἀναγκαίως περὶ ἑκάστου τῶν ἐπιζητουμένων, ὅσα ἔξεστί μοι κρεί- | νειν καὶ ποιεῖν, τὰ δὲ μείζονα καὶ δεόμενα τῆς τοῦ αὐτοκράτορο(ς) δυνάμεως καὶ μεγαλειότητος αὐτῶι δηλώσωι μετὰ πάσης ἀληθείας, τῶν θεῶν ταμιευσαμένων εἰς τοῦτον τὸν | ἱερώτατον καιρὸν τὴν τῆς οἰκουμένης ἀσφάλειαν. ἔγνων γὰρ πρὸ παντὸς εὐλογωτάτην οὖσαν τὴν ἔντευξιν ὑμῶν ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴι ἄκοντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς τελωνείας ἢι ἄλ- | [λ]ας μισθώσεις οὐσιακὰς παρὰ τὸ κοινὸν [ἔ]θος τῶν ἐπαρχειῶν πρὸς βίαν ἄγεσθαι, καὶ ὅτι οὐκ ὀλ[ίγ]ον ἔβλαψε τὰ πράγματα τὸ πολλοὺς ἀπείρους ὄντα(ς) τῆς τοιαύ- | της πραγματείας ἀχθῆναι μετ’ ἀνάγκης ἐπιβληθ(έ)ντων αὐτοῖς τῶν τελῶν. διόπερ καὶ αὐτὸς οὔτε ἤ̣γαγόν τινα εἰς τελωνείαν ἢι μίσθωσιν οὔτε ἄξωι, (ε)ἰδὼς τοῦτο | συμφέρειν καὶ ταῖς κυριακαῖς ψήφοις τὸ μετὰ προθυμίας ἑκόντας πραγματεύεσθαι τοὺς (δ)υνατούς. πέπεισμαι δὲ ὅτι οὐδ’ εἰς τὸ μέλλον ἄκοντάς τις ἄξει τελώνας | ἢι μισθωτάς, ἀλλὰ διαμισθώσει τοῖς βουλομένοις ἑκουσίως προ(σ)έρχεσθαι, μᾶλλον τὴν τῶν προτέρων ἐπάρχων αἰώνιον συνήθειαν φυλάσσων ἢι τὴν πρόσκαιρόν τινος ἀδικίαν | μειμησάμενος· ἐπειδὴι ἔνιοι προφάσει τῶν δημοσίων καὶ ἀλλότρια δάνεια παραχωρούμενοι εἴς τε τὸ πρακτόρειόν τινας παρέδοσαν καὶ εἰς ἄλλας φυλακάς, ἃς καὶ δι’ αὐτὸ τοῦτο | ἔγνων ἀναιρεθείσας, ἵνα αἱ πράξεις τῶν δανείων ἐκ τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ὦσι καὶ μὴι ἐκ τῶν (σ)ωμάτων, ἑπόμενος τῆι τοῦ θεοῦ Σεβα(σ)τοῦ βουλήσει, κελεύωι μηδένα τῆι τῶν (δ)ημοσίων προφά- | σει παραχωρεῖσθαι παρ’ ἄλλων (δ)άνεια ἃ μὴι αὐτὸς ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐδάνεισεν μηιδ’ ὅλως κατακλείε(σ)θαί τινα(ς) ἐλευθέρους εἰς φυλακὴν ἡντινοῦν, εἰ μὴι κακοῦργον, μη(δ)’ εἰς τὸ πρακ- | τόρειον, ἔξωι (τ)ῶν ὀφειλόντων εἰς τὸν κυρι(α)κὸν λόγον. ἵνα (δ)ὲ μηι(δ)αμόθεν βαρύνηι τὰ(ς) πρὸ(ς) ἀλλήλου(ς) (σ)υναλλαγὰς τὸ τῶν δημοσίων ὄνομα μη(δ)ὲ συνέχωσι τὴν κοινὴν πίστιν | οἱ τῆι πρωτοπραξίᾳ πρὸς ἃ μὴ δεῖ καταχρώμενοι, καὶ περὶ ταύτης ἀναγκαίως προέγραψα· ἐδη(λ)ώθηι γάρ μοι πολλάκις ὅτι ἤδηι τινὲς καὶ ὑποθήκας ἐπείρασαν ἀφελέσθαι νομίμως | (γ)εγονυίας καὶ ἀποδεδομένα δάνεια παρὰ τῶν ἀπολαβόντων ἀναπράσσειν πρὸς βίαν καὶ ἀγορασμοὺς ἀνα(δ)άστους ποιεῖν ἀποσπῶντες τὰ κτήματα τῶν ὠνησαμένων ὡς | συμβεβληκότων τισὶν ἀναβολικὰ εἰληφόσ[ι] ἐκ τοῦ φίσκου ἢι στρατηγοῖς ἢι πραγματικοῖς ἢι ἄλλοις τῶν προσοφειλ̣ηκότων τῶι δημοσίωι λόγωι· κελεύωι οὗν, ὅστις(ς) ἂν ἐνθά(δ)ε | ἐπίτροπος τοῦ κυρίου ἢι οἰκονόμος ὕποπτόν τινα ἔχηι τῶν ἐν τοῖς δημοσίοις πράγμασιν ὄντων, κατέχεσθαι αὐτοῦ τὸ ὄνο[μ̣]α ἢι προγράφειν, ἵν[α μηδ](ε)ὶς τῶι τοιούτωι συνβάλληι, | ἢι μέρηι τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτοῦ κατέχειν ἐν τοῖς δημοσίοις γραμματοφυλακίοις πρὸς ὀφείλημα. ἐὰν δέ τις μήιτε ὀνόματος κατεσχημένου̣ μ̣ήτε τῶν ὑπαρχόντων κρατου- | μένων δανίσηι νομίμως λαβὼν ὑποθήκην, ἢι φθάσηι ἃ ἐδάνισεν κομίσασθαι ἢι καὶ ὠνήσηταί τι, μὴι κατεχομένου τοῦ ὀνόματος μηδὲ τοῦ ὑπάρχοντος, οὐδὲν πρᾶγμα ἕξει. | τὰς μὲν γὰρ προῖκας ἀλλοτρίας οὔσας καὶ οὐ τῶν εἰληφότων ἀνδρῶν καὶ ὁ θεὸς Σεβαστὸς ἐκέλευσεν καὶ οἱ ἔπαρχοι ἐκ τοῦ φίσκου ταῖς γυναιξὶ ἀποδίδοσθαι, ὧν βεβαίαν δεῖ | τὴν πρωτοπραξίαν φυλάσσειν· ἐνετεύχθην δὲ καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀτελειῶν καὶ κουφοτελειῶν, ἐν αἷς ἐστιν καὶ τὰ προσοδικά, ἀξιούντων αὐτὰς φυλαχθῆναι, ὡς ὁ θεὸς Κλαύδιος | ἔγραψεν Ποστόμωι ἀπολύων, καὶ λεγόντων ὕστερον κατακεκρίσθαι τὰ ὑπὸ ἰδιωτῶν πραχθέντα ἐν τῶι μέσωι χρόνωι μετὰ τὸ Φλάκκον κ(α)τ(α)κρεῖναι καὶ πρὸ τοῦ τὸν θεὸν | Κλαύδιον ἀπολῦσαι· ἐπεὶ οὖν καὶ Βάλβιλλος καὶ Οὐηστεῖνος ταῦτα ἀπέλυσαν, ἀμφοτέρων τῶν ἐπάρχων ἐπικρίματα φυλάσσωι, καὶ ἐκείνων κατηκολουθηκότων τῆι | τοῦ θεοῦ Κλαυδίου χάριτι, ὥστε ἀπολελύσθαι τὰ μηδέπωι ἐξ αὐτῶν εἰσπραχθέντα, δηλονότι εἰς τὸ λοιπὸν τηρουμένης αὐτοῖς τῆς ἀτελείας καὶ κουφοτελείας. ὑπὲρ (δ)ὲ τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Καίσαρος λόγου πρα(χ)θέντων ἐν τῶι μέσωι χρόνωι, περὶ ὧν ἐκφόρια κατεκρίθηι, ὡς Οὐηστεῖνος ἐκέλευσεν [τ]ὰ καθήκοντα τελεῖσθαι, καὶ αὐ- | τὸς ἵστημι, ἀπολελυκὼς τὰ μηδέπωι εἰσπραχθέντα καὶ πρὸς τὸ μέλλον μένειν αὐτὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς καθήκουσι· ἄδικον γάρ [ἐ]στιν τοὺς ὠνησαμένους κτή- | ματα καὶ τιμὰς αὐτῶν ἀποδόντας ὡς δημοσίους γ(ε)ωργοὺς ἐκφόρια ἀπαιτεῖσθαι τῶν ἰδίων ἐδαφῶν. ἀκόλουθον δέ ἐ[σ]τιν ταῖς τῶν Σεβαστῶν | χάρισι καὶ τὸ τοὺς ἐνγενεῖς Ἀλεξανδρεῖς καὶ ἐν τῆι [χώ]ρᾳ διὰ φιλεργίαν κατοικοῦντας εἰς μηδεμία[ν ἄγ]εσ[θαι χωρικὴν λ]ειτουρ[γίαν]· | πολλάκις μὲν ἐπεζητήσατε, καὐτὸς δὲ φυλάσσωι, ὥστε μηδένα τῶν ἐνγενῶν Ἀλεξανδρέων εἰς λειτουργίας χωρικὰς ἄγεσθαι. μελήσει δέ | μοι καὶ τὰς στρατηγίας μετὰ διαλογισμὸν πρὸς τριετίαν ἐνχιρίζειν τοῖς κατασταθησομένοις. καθόλου (δ)ὲ κελεύωι, ὁσάκις ἔπαρχος ἐπ’ αὐτὸν ἀχθέντα ἔφθα- | σεν κρείνας ἀπολῦσαι, μηκέτι εἰς διαλογισμὸν ἄγεσθαι. ἐὰν δὲ καὶ δύο ἔπαρχοι τὸ αὐτὸ πεφρονηκότες ὦσι, καὶ κολαστέος ἐστὶν ὁ ἐγλογιστὴς ὁ τὰ αὐτὰ εἰς διαλογισμὸν | ἄγων, κ[α]ὶ μηδὲν ἄλλο ποιῶν πλὴν ἀργυρισμοῦ πρόφασιν καταλείπων ἑαυτῶι καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις πραγματικοῖς. πολλο[ὶ] (γ)οῦν ἠξίωσαν ἐκστῆναι μᾶλλον τῶν ἰδίων κτημάτων ὡς | πλεῖον τῆς τιμῆς αὐτῶν ἀνηλωκότες διὰ τὸ καθ’ ἕκαστον διαλογισμὸν τὰ αὐτὰ πράγματα εἰς κρίσιν ἄγεσθαι. τὸ δ’ αὐτὸ καὶ περὶ τῶν ἐν ἰδίωι λό(γ)ωι πραγμάτων ἀγομένων ἵστημι, ὥσ- | τε εἴ τι κριθὲν ἀπελύθηι ἢι ἀπολυθήσεται ὑπὸ τοῦ πρὸς τῶι ἰδίωι λόγωι τεταγμένου, μηκέτι ἐξεῖναι τούτωι εἰσαγγέλλειν κατηγόρωι μη(δ)ὲ εἰς κρίσιν ἄγεσθαι, ἢι ὁ τοῦτο ποιήσας ἀπαραιτή- | τως ζημιωθήσεται. οὐδὲν γὰρ ἔσται πέρας τῶν συκοφαντημάτων, ἐὰν τὰ ἀπολελυμένα ἄγηται ἕως τις αὐτὰ κατακρείνηι. ἤδηι δὲ τῆς πόλεως σχεδὸν ἀοικήτου γενομένης διὰ τὸ | πλῆθος τῶν συκοφαντῶν καὶ πάσης οἰκίας συνταρασσομένης ἀν(α)γκαίως κελεύωι, ἐὰν μέν τις τῶν ἐν ἰδίωι (λ)όγωι κατηγόρων ὡς ἑτέρωι συνηγορῶν εἰσάγηι ὑπόθεσιν, παρίστασθαι ὑπ’ | αὐτοῦ τὸν προσαγγεί(λ)αντα, ἵνα μηδὲ ἐκεῖνος ἀκίνδυνος ἦι. ἐὰν (δ)ὲ ἰ(δ)ίωι ὀνόματι κατενεγκὼν τρεῖς ὑποθέσεις μὴι ἀποδείξηι, μηκέτι ἐξεῖναι αὐτῶι κατηγορεῖν, ἀλλὰ τὸ ἥμισυ αὐτοῦ | τῆς οὐσίας ἀναλαμβάνεσθαι. ἀδικώτατον [γά]ρ ἐστιν πολλοῖς ἐπάγοντα κινδύνους ὑπὲρ οὐσιῶν καὶ τῆς ἐπ[ιτ]ιμίας αὐτὸν διὰ παντὸς ἀνεύθυνον εἶναι. καὶ καθόλου δὲ | [κ]ελεύσομαι τὸν γνώμονα τοῦ ἰ[δ]ί̣ου λόγου [κεῖσθ]αι, τὰ καινοποιηθέντα παρὰ τὰς τῶν Σεβαστῶν χάριτας ἐ[πα]νο[ρθ]ωσάμενος. προγράψω[ι δὲ φ̣ανερῶς ὅπως τοὺς ἤδηι ἐξ]- | ελε(γ)χθέντα[ς] συκοφάντας ὡς ἔδει ἐτιμωρησάμην. οὐκ ἀγνοῶι δ’ ὅτι πολλὴν πρόνοιαν ποιεῖσθε καὶ τοῦ τὴν Αἴγυπτον ἐν εὐσταθείᾳ [δ]ι̣αμ[ένειν], ἐξ ἧς [μεγάλως βαρύνεσθε· ἃς μὲν οὖν] | χορηγίας ἔχετε, ὅσα οἷόν τε ἦν ἐπηνωρθωσάμην. ἐνέτυχον γάρ μοι πολλάκις οἱ καθ’ ὅλην τὴν χώραν (γ)εωργοῦντες καὶ ἐδή(λ)ωσαν ὅτι πο(λλ)ὰ καιν[ῶ]ς κατεκρίθησα[ν, οὐ διὰ κακουργήματα] | [ἀλλὰ] διὰ τελέσματα σιτικὰ καὶ ἀργυρικά, καὶ οὐκ ἐξὸν τοῖς βουλομένοις εὐχερῶς καθολικόν τι καινίζειν. ταῦτα δὲ καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα κατακρίματ[α ο]ὐκ ἐπὶ τὴν Θηβαΐδα μόνη[ν εὗρον ἐκτεινόμενα] | [οὐ]δὲ ἐπὶ τοὺς πόρρωι νομοὺς τῆς κάτωι χώρας, ἀλ(λ)ὰ καὶ τὰ προάστια τῆς πό(λ)εως ἔφθασεν τήν τε Ἀλεξανδρέων καλουμένην χ̣ώραν καὶ τὸν Μαρεώτην [λαβεῖν. διὸ κελεύωι] | [το]ῖς κατὰ νομὸν στρατηγοῖς ἵνα εἴ τινα καινῶς τῆι ἔγγιστα πενταετίᾳ τὰ μὴι πρότερον τελούμενα καθολικῶς ἢι πληθικῶς νομῶν ἢι τοπα[ρχιῶν γεωργοῖς] | [κατ]εκρίθηι, ταῦτα εἰς τὴν προτέραν τάξιν ἀποκαταστήσωσιν, παρέντες αὐτῶν τὴν ἀπαίτησιν, ἃ καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν διαλογισμὸν ἀχθέντα ἐκ τῶν [ἀ̣γορῶν ἀπο]- | [λύωι]· ἐκώλ[υ]σα δ’ ἔτι καὶ πρότερον καὶ τὴν ἄμετρον ἐξουσίαν τῶν ἐ(γλ)ογιστῶν διὰ τὸ πάντας αὐτῶν καταβοᾶν ἐπὶ τῶι παραγράφειν αὐτοὺς πλεῖστα ἐκ τ[ῆς ὁ]- | [μοιώσεως] ἐξ οὗ συνέβαινεν αὐτοὺς μὲν ἀργυρίζεσθαι, τὴν δὲ Αἴγυπτον ἀνάστατον γείνεσθαι. καὶ νῦν τοῖς αὐτοῖς παραγγέλλωι μηδὲν ἐξ ὁμοιώμα[τος] | [παρα]γράφειν ἀλλὰ [μ]ηι[δ’] ἄλλο τι τῶι καθόλου χωρὶς τοῦ κρεῖναι τὸν ἔπαρχον· κελεύωι δὲ καὶ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς μηδὲν παρὰ ἐγλογιστῶν μεταλαμβάνειν χωρὶς ὑ[πο]- | [θήκ]ης ἐπάρχου. καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι δὲ πραγματικοί, ἐάν τι εὑρεθῶσι ψευ(δ)ὲς ἢι παρὰ τ[ὸ] δέον παραγεγραφότες, καὶ τοῖς ἰδιώταις ἀποδώσουσιν ὅ(σ)ον ἀπῃτήθησαν καὶ τὸ (ἴ)σ[ον] | [ἀποτίσ]ουσι [ε]ἰς τὸ δημόσιον. τῆς δ’ αὐτῆς κακοτεχνίας ἐστὶν καὶ ἡι λεγομένηι κατὰ σύνοψιν ἀπαίτησι[ς], ο̣ὐ πρὸς τὴν οὖσαν ἀνάβα[σι]ν | [Νίλου, ἀ]λλὰ πρὸς σύνκρισιν ἀρχαι(ο)τέρων τινῶν ἀναβάσε[ων, καίτοι] τῆς ἀληθείας αὐτῆς οὐδὲν δοκεῖ δικαιότερον εἶναι. θαρ- | [σεῖν δὲ βούλ]ομαι καὶ προθύμως γεωργεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπου[ς̣, εἰδότα]ς ὅτι πρὸς τὸ ἀληθὲς τῆς οὔσης ἀναβάσεως καὶ τῆς βεβρεγμ[έ]- | [νης γῆς, κα]ὶ̣ οὐ πρὸς σ[υ]κοφαντίαν τῶν κατὰ σύνοψιν παραγραφ[ομέ]νων ἡι ἀπαίτησις ἔσται. ἐὰν δέ τις ἐξελεγχθῆι ψευσάμ[ενος αὐτήν], | [τὸ κάθ]εκτον τριπλάσι[ο]ν ἀποδώσει. ὅσοι μὲν γὰρ ἐφοβήθησαν ἀ[κ]ούσαντες περὶ ἀναμετρήσεως τῆς ἐν τῆι Ἀ[λε]ξανδρέω[ν̣ χώρᾳ καὶ] | [τῶι νομῷ] Μενελαΐτηι ἀρχαίας γῆς, [ε]ἰς ἣν οὐδέποτε σχοινίον κα[τ]ηνέχθηι, μὴι μάτην εὐλ[α̣β̣]είσθωσαν· οὔτε [γὰρ ἐ]τολμήσε [ποτέ τις ποι]- | [ήσασθα]ι τὴν ἀνα[μ]έτρησιν οὔτε [πο]ιήσεται. μένειν γὰρ ὀφεί[λ]ει τ[ὸ] ἐξ αἰῶνος αὐτῆς δίκ[αιον. τὸ] δ’ αὐτὸ ἵστημι [καὶ π]ερὶ τῶν το[ύτοις προστε]- | [θέντ]ων προσγενημάτων, ὥστε [μη]δὲν ἐπ’ αὐτῶν καινίζεσθαι. περὶ δὲ τῶν ἀρχαιοτ(έ)[ρ̣ων] ἐκ[θ]έσεων, (ἐ)νκει[μένω]ν ὑμ[ῶ]ν, αἷς [τινες ὥστε] | [ἐκπράσ]σειν ἢ ὁρίσαι πολλάκις ο[ὐδὲν] πλέ[ο]ν περιε[ποί]ησαν πλὴν ἀργυρισμοῦ τῶν πραγμ[ατικ]ῶν καὶ τῆς τῶ[ν ἀνθρώ]π̣ω̣ν ἐπιτ[ρίψ̣εως, Καί]- | [σαρι Σ]ε[β̣α]στῶ[ι] Α[ὐ]τοκράτορι γράψ[ωι μ]ετὰ τῶν ἄλλω[ν ὅ]σα αὐτῶι δήλωι τῶι μόνωι δυναμ[ένω]ι τὰ τοιαῦτα ὁλ[οσχερ]ῶς [ἐ̣]κκόπτ[ειν, οὗ εἰσι] | [αἴτι]αι τῆς πάντων ἡ[μ]ῶν σωτηρίας ἡι δι[η]νεκὴς [εὐ]εργεσία καὶ πρόνοια. ἔ[το]υς πρώτο[υ Λουκ]ί̣ου Λειβίο[υ] | [Γάλ]βα Καί[σ]αρος Σεβαστοῦ Αὐτοκράτορος, Ἐ[π]εῖφ[ι] ιβʹ.

Translation: Tiberius Julius Alexander declares: Since I am exercising every solicitude for the city of Alexandria to maintain its proper political status in the enjoyment of the benefactions which it has from the Caesars, and for Egypt to continue in prosperity and cheerfully contribute to the grain supply and to the very great felicity of the present times unoppressed by novel and unlawful exactions; and since practically from the moment I entered the city I have been assailed by clamors of petitioners, both in small groups and in throngs, both from the most respectable people here and from the country farmers, complaining about the recent abuses, I have lost no time in righting pressing matters to the extent of my authority. And that you may the more cheerfully expect everything for your salvation and happiness from our benefactor, imperator Galba Augustus, who has brought light to us for the salvation of the whole  human race, and that you may know that I have been concerned with the matters relating to your relief, I have perforce set forth the decisions and actions that are in my power concerning each of the requests, and the weightier matters requiring the authority and majesty of the emperor I shall report to him in all truth, for the gods have preserved to this most sacred age the security of the inhabited world.

First of all, I recognize the complete reasonableness of your petition that persons not be forced against their will, contrary to the general practice of the provinces, into tax ..farming or other leases of imperial estate; no little harm has been done by the compulsion of many persons inexperienced in such duties, when the collection of the taxes was imposed upon them. Wherefore I myself have not forced and shall not force anyone into tax farming or lease, for I know that it is to the advantage of the imperial revenues, too, to have competent men administer these willingly and zealously. I am confident that in the future no official will force tax farmers or lessees against their will, but, observing the invariable practice of the former prefects instead of imitating someone’s temporary wrongdoing, will lease to persons willing to come forward voluntarily.

Whereas some officials have also had loans of others assigned to themselves under pretense of public obligations and have then proceeded to consign some persons to the debtor prison or to other jails which I know have been abolished for this very reason, that loans may be executed out of the properties and not out of the persons of the debtors; in keeping with the wish of the deified Augustus I order that no one shall, under pretense of public obligations, have loans assigned from others which he did not originally make, and that no free persons shall ever be locked up in any jail whatsoever, except a criminal, or in the debtor prison, except those indebted to the fisc.

[The next section, here omitted, concerns prior liens of the state on the private property of persons who have entered into public contracts.]

I have also received petitions concerning tax exemptions and reductions . . . from persons requesting that these privileges be reaffirmed in accordance with the rescript of divus Claudius to Postumus granting such release. . . . Since, therefore, Balbillus and Vestinus granted these releases, I reaffirm the decisions of both prefects, especially as they are in accord with the grant of divus Claudius; hence they have been released from the charges not yet exacted from them, and in the future certainly the tax exemption and reduction will remain in force for them.

[The next section, here omitted, guarantees purchasers of confiscated properties sold by the state against having to pay fiscal rents in addition to normal taxes.]

It is in keeping with the grants of the Caesars that native Alexandrians residing in the country for business reasons are not to be forced into any rural compulsory public service. You have often requested this and I confirm it, so that no one of the native Alexandrians shall be forced into rural public services. . . .

In general I order that whenever a prefect has already decided to dismiss a case brought before him, it is not to be brought again before the prefect’s assizes. And if two prefects have been of the same mind, a state accountant who brings up the same matters before the assizes is also to be punished [in addition to having the case thrown out], seeing that he does nothing else than reserve for himself and the other civil officials a pretext for enrichment. Many persons, in fact, have decided rather to abandon their private possessions, because they have expended more than their value through the same matters being brought to judgment at each assize.

I also establish the same rule for matters brought up under the idios logos, so that if any matter has been judged and dismissed, or shall be dismissed, by the procurator appointed for the “Special Account,” the accuser shall not again be permitted to submit the same charge to a prosecutor or to bring it to trial, or else the person so doing will be punished mercilessly; for there will be no end of vexatious denunciations if dismissed matters are brought up till someone decides to condemn. Since already the city has become practically uninhabitable because of the multitude of informers and every household is thrown into confusion, I perforce order that if any of the prosecutors attached to the idios logos introduces a suit as spokesman for another, he shall produce the real accuser in court, so that the latter, too, may not be free from risk; and if he brings three suits on his own responsibility and does not prove them, he shall not again be permitted to prosecute, but half his estate shall be confiscated; for it is most unjust that a person who brings upon many the dangers of loss of property and penalty should himself be completely free from liability. In general I shall order that the code of regulations of the idios logos remain in force, since I have amended the innovations introduced contrary to the grants of the emperors. And I shall openly publicize how I have meted out condign punishment to convicted informers. (Trans from. York University)

Commentary: Tiberius Julius Alexander is significant for a number of reasons, being a Jewish man who both served as governor of Judaea (46-48 CE) and participated in the siege of Jerusalem in the Judaean War.  Reproduced here is an edict he issued while governor of Egypt (identical with §367). Much has been written about him and his pursuits are attested by Josephus, Tacitus, Suetonius, among others. For additional documents attesting him, see §365, §366, §368, §369, §370, §148.

Provenience: Oasis Magna, Egypt (el-Hiba) 6 July 68 CE

Bibliography: OGIS 669; IGRR 1.1263; SB 5.8444