§150 Legio X Fretensis under Sextus Hermetidius Campanus

Legio X Fretensis under Sextus Hermetidius Campanus

(0150) Text: C(aius) Epidius C(ai) f(ilius) Pol(lia) | Bassus vet(eranus) | L(ucius) Petronius L(uci) f(ilius) Pol(lia) | Crispus vet(eranus) | M(arcus) Plotius M(arci) f(ilius) Pol(lia) | Fuscus vet(eranus) | M(arcus) Antonius M(arci) f(ilius) Pol(lia) | Celer vet(eranus) | P(ublius) Audasius P(ubli) f(ilius) Pol(lia) | Paullus vet(eranus) | M(arcus) Antonius Longus Pull(ia) vet(eranus) | L(ucius) Petronius Niger | vet(eranus) | L(ucius) Valerius Clemen(s) vet(eranus) | M(arcus) Antonius Germanus vet(eranus) || L(ucio) Nonio Calpurnio Torquato Asprenate, T(ito) Sextio Magio Laterano | co(n)s(ulibus), VI non(as) Iulias, anno XIII imp(eratoris) Caesaris Domitiani | Aug(usti) Germanici mense Epip(h) die VIII Alex(andriae) ad Aegyptum | M(arcus) Valerius M(arci) f(ilius) Pol(lia) Quadratus vet(eranus) dimmissus honesta | missione ex leg(ione) X Fretense testatus est se descriptum | et recognitum fecisse ex tabula aenea quae est fixa | in Caesareo magno escendentium scalas secundas | sub porticum dexteriorem secus aedem Veneris mar- | moreae in pariete in qua scriptum est et id quod infra scriptum es[t]: | Imp(erator) Caesar divi Vespasiani f(ilius) Domitianus Aug(ustus) Germanicus | pontifex maximus trib(unicia) potest(ate) VIII imp(erator) XVI censor perpetuus | p(ater) p(atriae) dicit: Visum est mihi edicto significare universoru[m] | vestrorum ui veterani milites omnibus vectigalib(us) | portitoribus publicis liberati immunes esse debe(a)n[t] | ipsi coniuges liberique eorum parentes qui conubia [eo-] | rum sument omni optumo iure c(ives) R(omani) esse possint et om[ni] | immunitate liberati apsolutique sint et omnem i[mmu-] | nitatem q(ui) s(upra) s(cripti) s(unt) parentes liberique eorum idem iuri[s] | idem condicionis sint utique praedia domus tabern[ae] | invitos intemni qui veteranos s[…]onis. | […] || […] | [… v]eteranorum cum uxoribus et liberis s(upra) s(criptis) in aere in- | scisi(s) aut si qui caelibes sint cum is quas postea duxissent | dumtaxat singuli singulas qui militaverunt Hierosolymnis | in leg(ione) X Fretense dimmissorum honesta missione stipendis eme- | ritis per Sex(tum) Hermetidium Campanum legatum Aug(usti) pro praetore | V k(alendas) Ian(uarias) Sex(to) Pompeio Collega Q(uinto) Peducaeo Priscino co(n)s(ulibus) qui militare | coeperunt P(ublio) Galerio Trachalo Ti(berio) Catio et T(ito) Flavio Cn(aeo) Aruleno co(n)s(ulibus) | ex permissu M(arrci) Iuni Rufi praefecti Aegypti L(ucio) Nonio Calpurnio | Torquato Asprenate T(ito) Sextio Magio Laterano co(n)s(ulibus) k(alendis) Iuli(i)s anno | XIII Imp(eratoris) Caesaris Domitiani Aug(usti) Germanici mense Epip(h) die VII. | ibi M(arcus) Valerius M(arci) f(ilius) Pol(lia) Quadratus coram ac praesentibus eis | qui signaturi erant testatus est iuratusque dixit per I(ovem) O(ptimum) M(aximum) et Genium | sacratissimi Imp(eratoris) Caesaris Domitiani Aug(usti) Germanici in militia | sibi L(ucium) Valerium Valentem et Valeriam Heracl(i)uu et Valeriam | Artemin omnes tres s(upra) s(criptos) | natos esse eosque in aere incisos civitatem | Romanam consecutos esse beneficio Optumi principis.

Translation: Gaius Epidius Bassus, son of Gaius, tribe of Pollia, veteran; Lucius Petronius Crispus son of Lucius, tribe of Pollia, veteran; Marcus Plotius Fuscus son of Marcus, tribe of Pollia, veteran; Marcus Antonius Celer, son of Marcus, tribe of Pollia, veteran; Publius Audasius Paullus, son of Publius, tribe of Pollia, veteran; Marcus Antonius Longus, tribe of Pollia, veteran; Lucius Petronius Niger, veteran; Lucius Valerius Clemens, veteran; Marcus Mantonius Germanus, veteran. In the consulship of Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asperenas and Titus Sextius Magius Lateranus, July 2nd of year 13 of Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus, conquerer of the Germans, month of Epeiph, the 8th day, at Alexandria in Egypt: Macus Valerius Quadratus, son of Marcus, of the tribe Pollia, veteran, honorably discharged from legio X Fretensis, declared that he had a copy made and authenticated from the bronze plaque, which is affixed in the Great Caesareum, as you climb the second flight of steps beneath the portico on the right, beside the tempe of the marble Venus, on the wall, on which is written the text which is set out below: Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus, conqueror of the Germans, son of the divine Vespasian, chief priest, in the eighth year of his tribunician power, acclaimed imperator 16 times, censor in perpetuity, father of the fatherland, declares: I have decided to proclaim by edict that the veterans among all of you should be free and exempt from all public taxes and toll dues, that they themselves, the wives who married them, their children, and their parents should be Roman citizens with every proper legal right that they should be free and immune with total exemption, and their parents and children mentioned above should have the same legal rights and the same status in respect to total exemption, and that with their land, houses, and shops shall not […] against their will and without payment […] || […] of veterans with their wives and children mentioned above whose names have been inscribed in bronze, or if they were unmarried, with those whom they married afterwards, limited to one wife for each man, and who served at Jerusalem in legio X Fretensis and were honorably discharged when their service was completed by Sextus Hermetidius Campanus, legate of the Emperor with propraetorian power, on December 28th in the consulship of Sextus Pompeius Collega and Quintus Peducaeus Priscinus, and who began their military service in the consulship of Publius Galerius Trachalus and Tiberius Catius, and in the consulship of Titus Flavius and Gnaeus Arulenus. Copied on the authorization of Marcus Junius Rufus, prefect of Egypt, in the consulship of Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas and Titus Sextius Magius Lateranus, on July 1st, year 13 of Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus, conquerer of the Germans, month of Epeiph, the 7th day. At the place of the original Marcus Valerius Quadratus, son of Marcus, of the tribe Pollia, in the presence of those men who were to act as witnesses, declared and swore by Best and Greatest Jupiter and the genius of the most revered Emperor Caesar Domitian Augustus, conquerer of the Germans, that Lucius Valerius Valens and Valerius Heraclus and Valeria Artemis, the three children mentioned above, were all born to him during his military service, that they had been inscribed on the original bronze record, and that they had acquired Roman citizenship through he benevolence of the splendid emperor.

Commentary: Though given nearly an entire military-career after the siege of Jerualem, Domitian granted extraordinary privileges to a veteran of legio X Fretensis and his family. This was likely an exceptional set of benefits, intended only for those who played a role in the fall of Jerusalem. This tablet bears some resemblances to military diplomas issued to auxiliaries, but notably, it is preserved in wood. Spelling is somewhat eccentric.

Provenience: Arsinoite nome, Egypt (near Fayuum, Egypt) 2 Jul 94 CE

Bibliography: ILS 3.9059; AE 1910.75; Emil Schürer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.—A.D. 135), trans. Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar and Matthew Black, Revised English ed., 3 vols.; vol. 1 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1973), 516; Edward Dąbrowa, Legio X Fretensis: A Prosopographical Study of Its Officers (I – III c. A.D.), Historia Einzelschriften 66 (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1993), 33-34, 52-53; Brian Campbell, ed., The Roman Army, 31 BC–AD 337: A Sourcebook (London: Routledge, 1994), no. 341*.